هدف: هدف از پژوهش حاضر افزایش کیفیت زناشویی در بستر باورهای سنتی جامعه بود. روش: روش پژوهش حاضر کیفی و از نوع نظریه زمینهای بود که به دلیل اهمیت موضوع" کیفیت زناشویی" تلاش شد از طریق مصاحبه با زوجین چهارمحال و بختیاری ضمن شناخت باورهای فرهنگی مطرح شده از سوی زوجین در خصوص مسائل و موضوعات خانواده و زناشویی(ساختار)، به فهم استراتژیهایی بپردازد (فرآیند)، که این زوجین جهت افزایش کیفیت زناشویی خود در ساختار موجود، اتخاذ میکنند. در این پژوهش 20زوج (40 مرد و زن) با روش نمونهگیری هدفمند، انتخاب و مورد مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته قرار گرفتند. دادهها از طریق روش نظریه زمینهای مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گرفتند. شرکتکنندگان در این پژوهش ضمن اذعان به برخی زمینههای معیوب فرهنگی همچون حاکمیت فرهنگ شرم، حاکمیت کلیشههای نقشی، نگاه منفی به خانوادههای اصلی، نبود فرهنگ تفکر جمعی و اهمیتِ قضاوت " دیگران" در زندگی زناشویی؛ به اتخاذ استراتژیهای موثر برای افزایش کیفیت زناشویی میپردازند. استراتژیهایی همچون استراتژی پذیرش و تغییر، تعهد و تعادل، اعتدال رفتاری با خانوادههای اصلی، واقعگرایی و مهم انگاری همسر. با توجه به یافتههای پژوهش میتوان گفت کیفیت زناشویی مسئلهای است که اولاً باید با توجه به بستر هر جامعه مورد بررسی و قضاوت قرار گیرد و در ثانی ضروری است کیفیت زناشویی به عنوان یک متغیر خرد، در سطح کنشگران اصلی خانواده یعنی"زن و شوهر" مورد بررسی قرار گیرد
عنوان مقاله [English]
increase the marital quality in traditional beliefs: A Qualitative Research Based on Grounded Theory: A Qualitative Research Based on Grounded Theory
The current study aimed to determine increase the marital quality in traditional beliefs. The study used qualitative design with purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews. Twenty couples (20 men and 20 women) were interviewed in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province to identify their cultural beliefs regarding marriage and family structure and address their strategies for enhancement of their marital quality. The data were analyzed using grounded theory. The participants acknowledged that some aspects of their cultural backgrounds such as dominance of shame, gender-role stereotypes, negative views towards the mainstream families, lack of collective thinking, and valuing “others’ judgments” in marital life, go against high quality marriages. The participants adopted effective strategies such as compliance and change, commitment and equilibrium, behavioral equilibrium with mainstream families, realism, and valuing the spouse to increase their marital quality. According to the findings, firstly marital quality should be investigated and addressed according to its context. Secondly, marital quality should be scrutinized as a micro variable with considering the main actors of family, namely “wife and husband”
Background & Purpose
A family is one of the most important institutions of society shaping individuals’ personalities. Family satisfaction and quality are among the factors influencing the flourishing, growth, and development of family members (Car, 2012, cited in Chavoshi et al., 2019). The family is a system that includes spousal, parental, and sibling subsystems. The spousal subsystem is considered the most fundamental subsystem of the family which its continuation leads to the stability of the family. Marital quality affects the spousal subsystem's efficacy, strength, and durability (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2012). Fowers & Owenz (2010) define marital quality based on spouses' feelings as the reflection of general subjective judgments and the spouses' assessment of their relationship. It is essential to conduct studies on issues in the family area, especially marital quality, while cultural contexts of the society are taken into account. The present study sought to examine the issue of marital quality in the context of Iranian society. The family and marriage should not be regarded as a macro-sociocultural phenomenon far from looking at the experience of the main actors of the family, the husband and wife, and not be considered an entirely micro and interpersonal phenomenon without considering the cultural contexts of the society. Hence, the present research attempted to conduct in-depth interviews with couples reporting a high degree of marital quality in their marital life and to investigate the approaches and strategies adopted by these couples to increase the quality of their marital life in the existing social context. Therefore, the current study addressed the two main questions:
The present study was qualitative, and the Straussian grounded theory method was used to analyze and interpret the collected data to understand the marital quality. In this study, 20 couples (40 males and females) in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province were selected through purposive sampling. The sample size was chosen according to the concept of saturation or redundancy (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). The inclusion criteria for couples were as follows: (a) having the maximum satisfaction of marital life, (b) being married between 1-15 years, (c) having the age range of 25-45 years, (d) reading and signing the informed consent form, (e) not having family-marital problems (through testing marital conflicts), and (f) not using psycho-neurological drugs. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Participants were interviewed from October 2018 to June 2019, and each participant was assured of the confidentiality of the interview and observance of ethics. The average interview time was between 40 to 60 minutes. All interviews were recorded entirely and then transcribed. Data analysis was also performed according to the grounded theory based on data immersion, classification, constant comparative methods, and coding. The analysis of the data was done in accordance with the two main research questions (1) the couples’ description of the existing cultural context and conditions and (2) The strategies adopted by them in the existing cultural context.
The conceptual model of the study
According to the interviewees, some aspects of couple's cultural backgrounds, such as living in a shame-based culture, experiencing restricted emotional intimacy between spouses, and between parents and children in most families, resulted in the lack of proper transmission of emotional skills that the partners believed were required for high marital quality. Despite these problematic areas, couples replaced emotional disillusionment with sensual-emotional satisfaction by adopting two strategies of “change” and “acceptance”.
Couples believed that some of the underlying conditions, such as traditional gender-role stereotypes emphasizing gender segregation, could challenge the sense of satisfaction with marital life. One could not distinguish precisely a couple’s roles in a family because, according to couples, one of the influential factors in marital satisfaction was the couple's commitment to fulfilling their responsibilities without dividing them based on gender.
According to the interviewees, the dysfunction of the educational process on the quantity and quality of relationships between couples and their families was one of the factors affecting the quality of marital life. Couples adopted some ways in order to avoid harming their relationships with others. These included being confidential and not discussing marital life issues with others, even for parents. In addition, partners tried not to interfere in the affairs of others and also tried not to let others interfere in their marital life affairs.
In line with the interviewees, one of the problematic cultural foundations in Iranian society is keeping up with the joneses, comparing, and “valuing others’ judgments” in life. one of the important factors in a couple’s life was avoiding idealizing thinking and satisfying desires based on reasonable and accessible expectations.
Some of the problematic cultural contexts led to the formation of one-sided decision-making in marital life. Some of these contexts include not institutionalizing the culture of collaboration and collective thinking. According to couples, altruism should replace selfishness and self-superiority in a couples’ relationship; And the couples’ relationship should be such that one of the partners does not feel disillusioned or worthless, and the partners don't see each other as rivals whose main concern is to win over the other.
Iranian families, specifically couples, have sought to reproduce the concepts of modernity and tradition according to their living conditions. Therefore, the practical implication of this study is paying more attention to the micro-level variables, namely the “husband and wife,” as the main actors of the family to increase “marital quality” and institutionalize and establish a marital and family program. The current research has some limitations. One is cautious in generalizing the results of any qualitative research. It is recommended to perform such studies in different generations separately and across states and cities so that the marital quality in different cultures, customs and people of other areas, as well as a common typology of marital quality can be found. It is recommended that the research results be implemented in structural equation modeling and experimental intervention for couples so that the results can be tested quantitatively.
At first, the general purposes of the research were explained to the participants;
The participants' consent was acquired to record the interviews;
The participants were assured that they would be given numerical codes in the report of results so that their names would keep anonymous; They were given the right to leave the interview at any time.
Funding: No funding was received for this study.
Authors’ contribution: This article is sponsored by the Office of Women and Family Affairs of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Governorate.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests.
Acknowledgments: Researchers appreciate participants' contributions to the research.