یکی از مهمترین مسائلی که در حوزة جرایم خانوادگی اتفاق می افتد، همسرکشی است که در آن مرد یا زن، همسر خود را به قتل می رساند. همسرکشی علاوه بر تأثیرات خانوادگی، پیامدهای منفی بر جامعه به جا می گذارد. این پژوهش با هدف تحلیل روایت زنان زندانی از «علل و زمینه های معاونت در قتل عمد همسر و رابطة نامشروع» سعی بر یافتن علل مؤثر بر همسرکشی دارد. تحقیق حاضر با اتخاذ رویکردی کیفی و با استفاده از تکنیک مشاهده و مصاحبة عمیق به روایت 13 نفر از زنانی که به جرم معاونت در قتل عمد همسر و رابطة نامشروع در ندامتگاه شهر ری زندانی بودهاند پرداخته است. یافته های تحقیق نشان میدهد همسر کشی زندانیان در بستری فرهنگی، اجتماعی رخ داده است، به این معنا که مجموعة عواملی در زندگی آن ها در کنارهم قرار گرفته که منجر به بروز این اتفاق گردیده است که مهمترین آن ها عبارت است از نارضایتی جنسی زن، خشونت خانگی، دغدغه های ذهنی زن نسبت به طلاق، نوع و شیوة ازدواج و اعتیاد مرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Narrated women prisoners about the causes and contexts of the deputy in the premeditated murder of her husband and illegitimate relationship
One of the most important problems in the field of domestic crime is spousal murder in which a man or woman kills his wife or her husband. In addition to family effects, spousal murder has negative consequences for society.The aim of this study is to analyze th narrative of women prisoners about the causes and contexts of the deputy in the intentional murder of her husband and the illegitimate relationship, and to try to find the effective reasons for the murder of her husband.
The present study has taken a qualitative approach and using the technique of observation and in-depth interviews, has narrated the story of 13 women who were convicted of assisting in the intentional murder of their husbands and having an illicit relationship in the Rey City Penitentiary. Research findings show that the murder of prisoners took place in a socio cultural context, in the sense that a set of factors in their lives were put together that led to this occurrence that the most important of which are female Sexual dissatisfaction, domestic violence, female mental concerns about divorce, type and manner of marriage and male addiction.
Background and purpose
One of the most critical issues in domestic crime is spousal murder, in which a man or woman kills his or her spouse. In addition to family effects, spousal murder has negative consequences for society. In this situation, it is not only men and women who are harmed, but also with the collapse of the family, children will also be victims and will face many problems. Not only the couple's relationship will be harmed, but also, with the collapse of the family, children will be victimized and face many problems. It is impossible to determine the most crucial factor for spousal murder because several factors are involved in this event. The wife's continued dissatisfaction and helplessness in getting out of it are mentioned as the main factors, in such a way that wife has decided to remove her husband physically. The increase in family homicides, especially spousal murder, is a sign of an important social issue in recent years. In this regard, although no accurate statistics are available, the increase in family homicides has been enough to be considered a social problem. Although the despicable phenomenon of spousal murder is affected by various psychological, economic, and socio-cultural factors, in this study, we aimed to analyze women prisoners' narrative of social and cultural causes of abetting in the premeditated murder of their husband.
This is an applied study in terms of purpose and considered qualitative in terms of methodology. This study used a narrative analysis of 13 Imprisoned women in the penitentiary of Shahr-e-Rey who were accused of abetting the murder of their husband and illicit relationship in 2018. An unstructured interview was implemented in which Imprisoned women were asked to tell the story of what happened in a narrative way and explain everything they see as the cause, consequence, their feelings about the subject, and their experience in that event. The interview proceeded in such a way that nothing from the researcher's preconceptions was instilled in the participants, and they tell the story from their point of view.
Thus, the structure of the interview was designed based on the family atmosphere of the participants before marriage, the method of mate selection, the woman's relationship with her husband and their problems, the reason for the murder, the way they got involved with their extramarital partner, and the kind of relationship between them. The interviews lasted an average of forty-five minutes to an hour, and interviews ended when the researcher ensured that the participants have provided duplicate codes and have nothing new to say. In this research, a narrative analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To collect demographic data such as age, educational status, etc., we used the personality file of the defendants, which includes individual and social characteristics.
Results indicated that the average age of the interviewees was 38, with the youngest 30 years old and the oldest 52 years old. Ten Women were housewives, and three were employed. Eleven participants were Iranian, and two of these were Afghan citizens. All the women were married legally, and none of them had a criminal record. In other words, their first criminal record was the murder of their husbands. The victims were killed with cold weapons or strangled, and no firearms were used in the murders. Most of these murders were committed at home, and they had already prepared the murder weapon and informed the killer when their husbands were at home. In most cases, the bodies were taken out of the house after the murder and left or burned around Tehran.
The spousal murder by these women has taken place in a cultural and social context, meaning that a set of factors accumulated that have led to the event. The most critical factors are women's sexual dissatisfaction, domestic violence, women's preoccupation with divorce, marriage type, and husband addiction.
In this study, we analyzed narratives of 13 women who engaged in an extramarital relationship and abetted in the premeditated murder of their husband. Women' Sexual dissatisfaction was one of the leading causes of the premeditated murder of a husband, which originates from factors such as the husband's neglect of the wife's sexual needs, husband extramarital relationship with other women, and sexual deviations in a husband. Husband's addiction is one factor that, directly and indirectly, contributed to wife's sexual dissatisfaction and domestic violence. Women's preoccupation with divorce, age difference between spouses, forced marriage, and domestic violence are other factors affecting the premeditated murder of her husband. Our results are consistent with Izi (2015), Vahida et al. (2015), Ghazinejad and Abbasian (2011), Aghabakhshi (2009), Javidi and Tarzi (2008), Moazami (2004), Ashouri and Moazami (2002), and Aldridge and Browne (2003). Izi (2015) found that contextual factors such as age, education, place of residence, and marrying at a young age by girls are important and consistent with our results that indicate the imprisoned women have a significant age difference from their murdered husbands. According to Ghazinejad and Abbasian (2011), psychological and social pressures on women, such as beatings and humiliation by their husbands, weak social support networks, are influential factors and are consistent with our results that indicate the lack of family support for women and domestic violence as important variables. Research shows that marriage at a young age by wife and the low economic status of the victims' family of origins (Aghabakhshi, 2009), lack of interest in the husband, lack of commitment, the moral degeneration of the husband (Javidi & Tarzi 2008), Infidelity or illicit relationship by a husband (Moazami, 2004), marriage at a young age, a forced and unwanted marriage, restrictive laws regarding divorce applications for women (Ashouri and Moazami, 2002), and drug and alcohol use are salient factors in committing spousal murder by women. Previous research confirms our results that indicate forced marriage, spouse' indifference to each other, wife sexual dissatisfaction, and Husband sexual perversion, an extramarital sexual relationship of a murdered husband, the taboo of divorce and wife preoccupation with divorce, and direct or indirect effects of drugs have all contributed to spousal murderer by women.
This study was conducted under the ethical codes of human research.
Authors contributions: Hossein Fekrazad is the corresponding author, Mahtb Mafi is the second author, and the third author, Mr. Amir Massoud Amir Mazaheri is responsible for writing the article.
Conflict of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare, and this article has never been published before.