سیاست پسااستعماری و زنان مسلمان در سینمای هالیوود؛ تحلیل روایت فیلم «در سرزمین خون و عسل»

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی اصیل

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم ارتباطات دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22051/jwfs.2021.34202.2591

چکیده

این مقاله در پی آن است که با رویکرد تحلیل روایت، بازنمایی مسئله جنسیت و زن مسلمان را در سینمای هالیوود نشان دهد. از این رو با بهره‌گیری از رویکرد نظریه پسااستعماری در نقد گفتمان شرق‌شناسی در حوزه معنایی برساخت جنسیت زنان شرقی و مسلمان و همچنین فمینیسم لیبرال، به تحلیل روایت فیلم «در سرزمین خون و عسل» (آنجلینا جولی، 2011) می‌پردازد. این فیلم، یکی از مهمترین ساخته‌های سینمایی هالیوود است که روایت اصلی خود را به بازنمایی زن مسلمان اختصاص داده است. یافته‌های این پژوهش حاکی است که روایت این فیلم از کلیشه‌های شرق‌شناسانهٔ جنسیتی پیروی می‌کند و به خوبی، تقابل دو رویکرد فمینیستی لیبرال و پسااستعماری را نشان می‌دهد. آنچنان که زن شرقی و مسلمان هم از طرف خواهر غربی و هم از طرف جامعهٔ خویش مورد تحقیر قرار می‌گیرد. زن مسلمان در روایت این فیلم؛ هم ابژه کلیت شرق‌شناسانه سینمای آمریکایی است؛ هم کلیشه‌های جنسی و جنسیتی بر وی تحمیل می‌شود و هم در برابر نظام جهانی، متهم به خیانت می‌گردد و شایسته مرگ دانسته می‌شود. تحلیل روایت این فیلم می‌تواند چشم‌اندازهای جدیدی در فمنیسم پسااستعماری ایجاد کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Postcolonial politics and Muslim women in Hollywood cinema; Narrative analysis of "In the Land of Blood and Honey"

نویسنده [English]

  • Majid Soleimani Sasani

Department Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

This article seeks to show the representation of gender and Muslim women in Hollywood cinema with a narrative analysis approach. Thus, using the approach of postcolonial theory in the critique of Orientalism discourse and the construction of gender in Eastern and Muslim women, and liberal feminism, Analyzes the narrative of "In the Land of Blood and Honey" (Angelina Jolie, 2011). This film is one of the most important Hollywood films that has dedicated its main narrative to the representation of a Muslim woman. The findings of this study show that the narrative of this film follows Orientalist gender stereotypes and, well, shows the contrast between the liberal and postcolonial feminist approaches. As the Eastern and Muslim woman is humiliated by both her Western sister and her community. Muslim woman in the narrative of this film; Is also the Orientalist object of American cinema; She is subjected to both sexual and gender clichés and is accused of treason against the world system and is considered worthy of death. Narrative analysis of this film can open new perspectives on postcolonial feminism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Orientalism
  • Islamophobia
  • Hollywood
  • Narrative analysis
  • Postcolonial Politics
Ahmadi, B. (1999). Text structure and interpretation. Tehran: Markaz. [Text in Persian]
Ameli Ranani, S. R., & Nosrat Kharazmi, Z. (2016). Global Gender Regime” and American Foreign Policy in MENA Case Study: Hillary Clinton’s Tenure at State Department. Journal of Woman and Family Studies, 4(1), 171-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.22051/jwfs.2016.2351 [Link]
Aston, E., & Savona, G. (2013). Theatre as sign system: A semiotics of text and performance. Routledge. [Link]
Barthes, R. (1966). Introduction to the structural analysis of the narrative. Centre for Contemporary Culture Studies, University of Birmingham. [Link]
Bennett, A., & Royle, N. (2016). An introduction to literature, criticism, and theory: key critical concepts. London; New York: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheastsheaf. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315652450 [Link]
Bertens, J. W. (2013). Literary theory: the basics. London; New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203488836 [Link]
Colliver Rice, C. (1976). Persian Women & their ways: the experiences & impressions of a long sojourn amongst the women of the land of the Shah with an intimate description of their characteristics, customs & manner of living. Teheran Imperial Office for Social Services.
Eagleton, T. (2011). Literary theory: an introduction. Malden, Mass; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. [Link]
Edgar, A., & Sedgwick, P. R. (2009). Key concepts in cultural theory. London; New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203981849 [Link]
Ganji, M., Amir Mazaheri, A. M., & Labibi, M. (2019). The social genealogy and manipulation of body among Iranian women. Journal of Woman and Family Studies, 7(1), 205-245.https://dx.doi.org/10.22051/jwfs.2019.13890.1358 [Link]
Hall, S., & Gieben, B. (Eds.). (1991). The Formations of modernity. Polity Press. [Link]
Hayward, S. (2018). Key concepts in cinema studies. London; New York: Routledge.https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315619729 [Link]
Khorasani, M. (2004). Claude Bermond: an introduction to the poetics of structuralist narratives, Narrative Literature, 79, 8-10. [Text in Persian]
Leela Gandhi. (1999). Postcolonial theory: a critical introduction. New York Columbia University Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003116714 [Link]
Makaryk, I. R. (2000). Encyclopedia of contemporary literary theory: approaches, scholars, terms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. [Link]
Martin, W. (1987). Recent theories of narrative. Ithaca (Ny); London: Cornell University Press. [Link]
Mehdizadeh, M. (2000). Media Theories: Common Thoughts and Critical Views. Tehran: Hamshahri. [Text in Persian]
Morton, S. (2003). Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203108512 Abingdon: Routledge. [Link]
Mulvey, L. (1989). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. In Visual and other pleasures (pp. 14-26). Palgrave Macmillan, London. [Link]
Naqibossadat, S. (2012). Methodology of content analysis and understanding of apocalyptic movies. The Promised East, 6(21), 111-140. [Text in Persian] [Link]
Okhovat, A. (1992). Grammar of the story. Isfahan: Farda. [Text in Persian]
Pirbodaghi, F. (2009). Qualitative content analysis and its application in the media, Tehran: Radio and Television Research Center. [Text in Persian]
Rimmon-Kenan, S. (2003). Narrative fiction: contemporary poetics (2nd ed.). London New York Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203426111 [Link]
Sardar, Z. (1999). Orientalism. Buckingham: Open University Press. [Link]
Scholes, R. (1974). Structuralism in literature: an introduction. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Link]
Selby, K., & Cowdery, R. (1995). How to study television. London: Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-12829-7 [Link]
Sojudi, F. (2005). Semiotics and Literature. Tehran: Farhang Kavosh. [Text in Persian]
Stam, R. (2017). Film theory: An introduction. John Wiley & Sons. [Link]
Toolan, M. J. (2013). Narrative: a critical linguistic introduction. London; New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315011271 [Link]
Young, R. J. C. (2020). Postcolonialism a very short introduction. United States: Oxford University Press (Nc. https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780198856832.001.0001 [Link]