پیش بینی کننده های احساس تنهایی در نوجوانان: نقش جنسیت، رفتارهای فرزندپروری والدین ، کیفیت دوستی و کمرویی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی اصیل

نویسندگان

1 گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، پژوهشکده زنان، دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

2 دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

10.22051/jwfs.2021.35319.2656

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف بررسی نقش جنسیت، رفتارهای فرزندپروری والدین، ​​کیفیت دوستی و کمرویی در احساس تنهایی دورۀ نوجوانی از طریق مدل اکولوژیکی تحولی انسانی و چشم انداز زمینه ای -تحولی طراحی شده است. 211 دانش آموز نوجوان (133 دختر و 78 پسر) از پنج مدرسه دوره اول متوسطه شهر تهران (ایران) در طرح تحقیق همبستگی شرکت کردند و مقیاس های خود گزارشی از جمله: مقیاس تنهایی ، مقیاس کوتاه EMBU ، مقیاس بازنگری شدۀ احساس کمرویی و پرسشنامه کیفیت دوستی (SACRAL را تکمیل کردند نتایج نشان داد که رفتار فرزندپروری والدین ،احساس ​​کمرویی و کیفیت دوستی با تنهایی ارتباط دارد. علاوه بر این ، یافته ها نشان داد که سطح پایین کیفیت دوستی و سطح بالای رفتارفرزندپروری والدین به صورت طرد و کنترل بیش از حد، با سطح بالای تنهایی در نوجوانان ارتباط مثبت دارد. علاوه بر این ، نتایج نشان داد که نوجوانان پسر نسبت به نوجوانان دختر احساس تنهایی بیشتری می کنند. نتایج به دست آمده از مطالعه حاضر پیامدهای مختلفی را در پی دارد که می تواند به صورت پیشنهاد اقدامات مداخله ای جهت ارتقای تحول در طی سالهای نوجوانی مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The predictors of Loneliness in Adolescents: The role of Gender, Parenting Rearing Behaviors, Friendship Quality, and Shyness

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi 1
  • Gholamreza Dehshiri 2

1 Department of Psychology, Women Research Center, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

This study was designed to explore the role of gender, parental raring behavior, friendship quality and shyness in the feeling of loneliness during adolescence through the ecological model of human development and the contextual-developmental perspective. ‎‎211 adolescents’ students (‎133 females, 78 males‎) from five high ‎schools in Tehran (Iran) participated in correlational research design (a non-experimental study) and ‎completed the self-report scales including: Loneliness Scale, Short EMBU, Revised Cheek–Buss ‎Shyness Scale, and Friendship–Unfriendship Attachment Inventory ‎‎(SACRAL)‎. The results showed that parenting behavior, shyness, and friendship quality were correlated with loneliness. Moreover, the findings indicated that the low level of friendship quality and high level of parenting behavior in both rejection and over-controlling had a positive correlation with the high level of loneliness in adolescents. In addition, the result showed that male adolescents feel lonelier than female adolescents. The results obtained from the current study provide a number of implications, which can be beneficial in proposing intervention efforts directed toward promoting ideal development and growth during teenage years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gender
  • Perceived parenting rearing behavior
  • Shyness
  • friendship quality
  • Loneliness
References
Aikins, J. W., Bierman, K. L., & Parker, J. G. (2005). Navigating the transition to junior high school: The influence of pre‐transition friendship and self‐system characteristics. Social Development, 14(1), 42-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2005.00290.x [Link]
Archibald, F. S., Bartholomew, K., & Marx, R. (1995). Loneliness in early adolescence: A test of the cognitive discrepancy model of loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin21(3), 296-301. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295213010. [Link]
Arefi, M., Navabinezhad, Sh. & Sanai, B. (2006). Investigation of the relationship between attachment styles and friendship quality. Counseling Research and Development, 5(18), 9-31. [Link]
Arrindell, W. A., Akkerman, A., Bagés, N., Feldman, L., Caballo, V. E., Oei, T. P., ... & Davis, M. (2005). The short-EMBU in Australia, Spain, and Venezuela. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.21.1.56 [Link]
Asher, S. R., & Paquette, J. A. (2003). Loneliness and peer relations in childhood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(3), 75-78. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01233 [Link]
Bagwell, C. L., & Schmidt, M. E. (2013). Friendships in childhood and adolescence. Guilford Press. [Link]
Bokhorst, C. L., Sumter, S. R., & Westenberg, P. M. (2010). Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: Who is perceived as most supportive. Social development, 19(2), 417-426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00540.x [Link]
Boldero, J., & Moore, S. (1990). An evaluation of de Jong-Giervald's loneliness model with Australian adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 19. 133-147. doi: 10.1007/BF01538717. [Link]
Booth-LaForce, C., & Oxford, M. L. (2008). Trajectories of social withdrawal from grades 1 to 6: Prediction from early parenting, attachment, and temperament. Developmental psychology44(5), 1298. doi: 10.1037/a0012954 [Link]
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [Link]
Bruch, M. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (1994). Differences in perceptions of parental and personal characteristics between generalized and nongeneralized social phobic. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8, 155–168. doi: 10.1016/0887-6185(94)90013-2. [Link]
Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Theory and measurement of EAS. Temperament: Early developing personality traits, 98-130. [Link]
Castro, J., Toro, J., Van der Ende, J., & Arrindell, W. A. (1993). Exploring the Feasibility of Assessing Perceived Parental Rearing Styles in Spanish Children with Theembu. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39(1), 47-57. doi: 10.1177/002076409303900105. [Link]
Cheek, J. M. (1983). The revised Cheek and Buss shyness scale. Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, 21-81. [Link]
Cheek, J. M., & Buss, A. H. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of personality and social psychology, 41(2), 330. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.2.330. [Link]
Chen, X. (2012). Culture, peer interaction, and socioemotional development. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 27–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00187.x. [Link]
Chen, X., & French, D. C. (2008). Children's social competence in cultural context. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 591-616. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093606.[Link]
Chen, X., French, D. C., & Schneider, B. H. (Eds.). (2006). Peer relationships in cultural context. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499739. [Link]
Chen, X., He, Y., Oliveira, A. M. D., Coco, A. L., Zappulla, C., Kaspar, V., ... & DeSouza, A. (2004). Loneliness and social adaptation in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian children: a multi‐national comparative study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry45(8), 1373-1384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00329.x. [Link]
Chen, Y. (2007). Parent-child relationship in single-child families in China. World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review, 2, 123–127. [Link]
Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2004). Perceived parental rearing style, self-esteem and self-criticism as predictors of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies5(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOHS.0000021704.35267.05. [Link]
Coplan, R. J., Gavinski-Molina, M. H., Lagacé-Séguin, D. G., & Wichmann, C. (2001). When girls versus boys play alone: Nonsocial play and adjustment in kindergarten. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 464–474. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.37.4.464. [Link]
Criss, M. M., Houltberg, B. J., Cui, L., Bosler, C. D., Morris, A. S., & Silk, J. S. (2016). Direct and indirect links between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 43, 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2016.01.002 [Link]
Crozier, W. R. (2005). Shyness and students' perceptions of seminars. Psychology Learning & Teaching4(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.2304/plat.2004.4.1.27. [Link]
Cummings, E. M., & Valentino, K. (2015). Developmental psychopathology. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, 1-41. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy115. [Link]
Dehshiri, Gh., Borjali, A., Sheikhi, M., & Habibi-Askarabad, M. (2008‎). Development and Validation of the Loneliness Scale among the University Students. Journal of Psychology, 12 (3), 282-296. [Link]
Dehyadegary, E., Yaacob, S. N., Juhari, R. B., & Talib, M. A. (2011). Relationship between parenting style and academic achievement among Iranian adolescents in Sirjan. Asian Social Science, 8(1), 156-176. DOI:10.5539/ass.v8n1p156. [Link]
Demir, M., Özdemir, M., & Weitekamp, L. A. (2007). Looking to happy tomorrows with friends: Best and close friendships as they predict happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(2), 243-271. doi:10.1177/0743558404273118. [Link]
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton. [Link]
Grose, J., & Coplan, R. J. (2015). Longitudinal outcomes of shyness from childhood to emerging adulthood. The Journal of genetic psychology176(6), 408-413. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2015.1084988. [Link]
Gruenenfelder-Steiger, A. E., Harris, M. A., & Fend, H. A. (2016). Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects. Developmental psychology, 52(10), 1563. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000147. [Link]
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course. Psychological bulletin, 121(3), 355-377. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.355 [Link]
Hassani, M, Fathi-Ashtiani, A, Rasoolzadeh-Tabatabaei, S. K. (2012). A comparison of early maladaptive schemas and perceived parental rearing behaviors in couples with problem-focused and emotion-focused coping style. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6 (3):9-10. [Link]
Hastings, P. D., Nuselovici, J. N., Rubin, K. H., & Cheah, C. S. L. (2010). Shyness, parenting, and parent-child relationships. In K. H. Rubin & R. J. Coplan (Eds.), The development of shyness and social withdrawal (pp. 107–130). The Guilford Press. [Link]
Hawthorne, G. (2008). Perceived social isolation in a community sample: Its prevalence and correlates with aspects of peoples’ lives. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 140-150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0279-8. [Link]
Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical psychology review, 26(6), 695-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002. [Link]
Hopko, D. R., Stowell, J., Jones, W. H., Armento, M. E., & Cheek, J. M. (2005). Psychometric properties of the revised Cheek and Buss shyness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84(2), 185-192. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8402_08. [Link]
Hosseinchari, M., Delavarpour, M., Dehghani, Y. (2008). The Role of Parenting Styles on High School Students’Shyness. Contemporary Psychology, 2(2), 21-30. [Link]
Kandel, D. B., and Davies, M. (1982). Epidemiology of depressive moods in adolescents. An empirical study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 39, 1205–1212. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290100065011 [Link]
Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring? Developmental psychology, 36(3), 366-386. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.36.3.366. [Link]
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical child and family psychology review, 14(3), 251. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4. [Link]
Kingery, J. N., & Erdley, C. A. (2007). Peer experience as predictors of adjustment across the middle school transition. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(2), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2007.0007. [Link]
Koenig, L. J., & Abrams, R. R. (1999). Adolescent Loneliness and Adjustment: A Focus on Gender Differences. Loneliness in childhood and adolescence, 30, 296-315. [Link]
Latifi, Z., & Moradi, F. (2016). Parenting practices in Iran. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies1(1), 261-270. [Link]
Laursen, B., Bukowski, W. M., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2007). Friendship Moderates prospective associations between social isolation and adjustment problems in young children. Child development, 78(4), 1395-1404. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01072.x. [Link]
Leary, M. R & Buckley, K. E. (2002). Shyness and the pursuit of social acceptance. In Shyness (pp. 155-169). Routledge. [Link]
Liu, J., Coplan, R. J., Chen, X., Li, D., Ding, X., & Zhou, Y. (2014). Unsociability and shyness in Chinese children: Concurrent and predictive relations with indices of adjustment. Social Development23(1), 119-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12034. [Link]
Lodder, G. M. A., Goossens, L., Scholte, R. H. J., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Verhagen, M. (2016). Adolescent loneliness and social skills: agreement and discrepancies between self-, meta-, and peer-evaluations. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(12), 2406-2416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0461-y. [Link]
Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after school and community programs. Psychology Press. [Link]
McClowry, S. G., Halverson, C. F., & Sanson, A. (2003). A re-examination of the validity and reliability of the School-Age Temperament Inventory. Nursing Research, 52(3), 176-182. Doi: 10.1097/00006199-200305000-00007. [Link]
McCombs, A., Forehand, R., & Smith, K. (1988). The relationship between maternal problem-solving style and adolescent social adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology2(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080479. [Link]
McDonald, K. L., Wang, J., Menzer, M. M., Rubin, K. H., & Booth-LaForce, C. (2011). Prosocial behavior moderates the effects of aggression on young adolescents’ friendships. International Journal of Developmental Science, 5(1-2), 127-137. doi: 10.3233/DEV-2011-10066. [Link]
Mounts, N. S., Valentiner, D. P., Anderson, K. L., & Boswell, M. K. (2006). Shyness, sociability, and parental support for the college transition: Relation to adolescents’ adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence35(1), 68-77. [Link]
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, S. (2003). Internalizing and externalizing problems as correlates of self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing in normal adolescents. Journal of Child and family Studies12(2), 171-183. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022858715598. [Link]
Naimi, S., & Niaraki, F. R. (2013). Effectiveness of Self-Differentiation Training on Self-Differentiation, Test-Anxiety and Self-Efficacy among Students in Saveh City. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 2(2s), 317. [Link]
Parker, J. G., Saxon, J. L., Asher, S. R., & Kovacs, D. M. (1999). Dimensions of children’s friendship adjustment: Implications for understanding loneliness. Loneliness in childhood and adolescence, 27(4), 201-221. [Link]
Pedersen, S., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Borge, A. I. H. (2007). The timing of middlechildhood peer rejection and friendship: Linking early behavior to early-adolescent
adjustment. Child Development, 78(4), 1037-1051. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01051.x [Link]
Rajabi, Gh., Abasi, Gh. A. (2011). A Study of Factorial Structure (Construct Validity) of the Persian Version of the Revised Shyness Scale among Students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 16 (4), 456- 467. [Link]
Rezaeian, H., Tutunchi, B. (2019). Predicting the religious identity of children based on interactive family patterns, parental religiosity and critical thinking of adolescents. Journal of Woman and Family Studies, 7(3), 109-128. doi: 10.22051/jwfs.2020.9643.1133. [Link]
Reisman, J. M., & Billingham, S. (1989). SACRAL: Additional correlates of a self-report measure of friendliness-unfriendliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53(1), 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5301_12. [Link]
Rich, A. R., Kirkpatrick‐Smith, J., Bonner, R. L., & Jans, F. (1992). Gender differences in the psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 22(3), 364-373. PMID: 1440750. [Link]
Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological bulletin, 132(1), 98-110. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98. [Link]
Rubin, D. B. (2004). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. John Wiley & Sons, (Vol. 81). [Link]
Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., & Bowker, J. C. (2009). Social withdrawal in childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 141–171. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163642. [Link]
Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2013). Stress, coping, and relationships in adolescence. Psychology Press. [Link]
Shin, J. H., Hong, J. S., Yoon, J., & Espelage, D. L. (2014). Interparental conflict, parenting behavior, and children’s friendship quality as correlates of peer aggression and peer victimization among aggressor/victim subgroups in South Korea. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(10), 1933-1952. dio:10.1177/0886260513511695. [Link]
Soheili, M., Dehshiri G., & Mousavi, S. F. (2015). Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality. Journal of research on addiction, 9 (33), 91-106. [Link]
Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological bulletin, 139(1), 213. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028931. [Link]
Stevenson‐Hinde, J., & Glover, A. (1996). Shy girls and boys: A new look. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(2), 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01389.x [Link]
Sullivan, H. S. (2013). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. Routledge. [Link]
Tavakoli, H. (2012). A dictionary of research methodology and statistics in applied linguistics. Rahnama press. [Link]
Wrzus, C., Zimmermann, J., Mund, M., Neyer, F. J. (2017). Friendships in young and middle adulthood: Normative patterns and personality differences. In Hojjat, M., Moyer, A. (Eds.), The Psychology of friendship. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.